Sunday, September 14, 2014

Specific binding of insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 to the type 1 and type 2 receptors respectively


1. Competitive binding and receptor cross-linking experiments have been used to examine the receptor-ligand interactions between three bovine insulin-like growth factors (IGF) and monolayer cultures of myoblasts and fibroblasts. 2. Labelled IGF-2 bound predominantly to the type 2 receptor with negligible label cross-linked to the type 1 receptor, notwithstanding the ability of IGF-2 to compete effectively for the binding of IGF-1 to the type 1 receptor. Approx. 100-fold higher concentrations of IGF-1 or the N-terminal truncated (des-Gly-Pro-Glu) IGF-1 (-3N:IGF-1) were required to produce competition equivalent to IGF-2. 3. All IGF peptides, but especially IGF-1, enhanced the binding of labelled IGF-2 to the type 2 receptor of lung fibroblasts. This unusual effect was probably a consequence of the displacement of labelled IGF-2 otherwise bound to a medium protein, a conclusion supported by the demonstration of a 38 kDa membrane protein cross-linked to labelled IGF-2. 4. Both IGF-1 and -3N:IGF-1 bound only to the type 1 IGF receptor in L6 myoblasts, rat vascular smooth-muscle cells and human lung fibroblasts. The peptides competed for labelled IGF-1 binding with potencies in the order -3N:IGF-1 greater than IGF-1 greater than IGF-2 much greater than insulin. Since the IGF peptides were equipotent in skin fibroblasts, it was proposed that the apparently higher affinity of -3N:IGF-1 for receptors in the other cell types was instead a consequence of a low affinity of this peptide for the competing 38 kDa binding protein.

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Thursday, September 11, 2014

S100A1 structure


Like many other S100 proteins, S100A1 can exist as either a hetero or homodimer. Protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy structural information on the homodimeric form of this protein shows that each monomer is quite helical, and contains two EF-hand calcium-binding loops; an 'S100' EF hand in the N-terminus and a canonical EF-hand in the C-terminus. These domains are linked by a 'hinge' region, which exists as a random coil. Both EF-hands bind calcium, although the real EF-hand has a significantly higher affinity (with a dissociation constant of roughly 20 micromolar). The two calcium-binding regions neighbor each other in three dimensional space, and are connected to each other through a short beta sheet region (residues 27–29 and 68–70).
The S100A1 homodimer is high affinity (nanomolar range or tighter), and is formed through hydrophobic packing of an X-type 4-helix bundle created between helices 1, 1', 4, and 4'.
The most accurate high-resolution solution structure of human apo-S100A1 protein (PDB accession code: 2L0P) has been determined by means of NMR spectroscopy in 2011.

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Tuesday, September 9, 2014

Ca2+ and Calmodulin Modulate DNA-Binding Activity of Maize Heat Shock Transcription Factor in Vitro


DNA-binding activity of a maize heat shock transcription factor (HSF) was induced by heat shock of a whole cell extract at 44°C. Addition of the calcium ion chelator EGTA reduced the binding of the HSF to heat shock element (HSE) in vitro. Re-addition of CaCl2 to the sample pretreated with EGTA restored the ability of the HSF to bind to DNA. DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaCl2 to a whole cell extract at non-heat-shock temperature, but not by MgCl2. During HS at 44°C, calmodulin (CaM) antagonists chlorpromazine (CPZ) and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W7) inhibited DNA-binding activity of the HSF in a concentration-dependent manner, but N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W5), an inactive structural analogue of W7, did not. Addition of antiserum specific to CaM reduced the binding of the HSF to HSE. Re-addition of CaM to the sample pretreated with antiserum could restore the binding activity of the HSF. DNA-binding activity of the HSF was promoted by directly adding CaM to a whole cell extract at 44°C, but not by BSA. Moreover, at non-heat-shock temperature, DNA-binding activity of the HSF was also induced by directly adding CaM to a whole cell extract, but not by BSA. Our observations further confirm the role of Ca2+ in activation of the HSF in plant and provide the first example of the role of CaM in regulation of DNA-binding activity of the HSF. These results suggest that Ca2+ and CaM are involved in HSP gene expression likely through regulating the activity of the HSF.

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Friday, September 5, 2014

Functional components in flaxseed and their functions


Functional components, lignans, pigments & amyloses, linolenic acid (ALA),flax gum ,proteins, dietary  fibre, minerals and vitamins in flaxseed and their functions for health and daily life. The lignans can combine with estrogen receptor emuiously to disturb the growth of tumour caused by estrogen. Study reports proved that SDG has the effects of anti-tumour when consumed at the early stage of breast cancer, and as a kind of anti-oxidant, SDG also possesses the ability of inhibiting high cholesterol atherosclerosis. Pigments & amyloses are perfect natural clearing preparation of free group and what is more, they are cheaper, more efficient, and non-toxic & side-effects as well. Linolenic acid (ALA) and its metabolizing products have important and extensive physiological effects in immune system, generative system, heart & blood vessel system and incretion system in human body. As to flax gum, it has already been listed in the safety catalogs of codes of foods and drugs. In addition, there are still a lot of nutrient components, such as proteins, celluloses, vitamins and minerals, are provided with important physiological functions.
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Wednesday, September 3, 2014

Royal Jelly - pharmacological effects


After years of research at home and abroad, and medical clinical practice has proved that royal jelly has peculiar effect on human health, health care, etc.
(1) improve nutrition, supplementary brain: the royal jelly contains a lot of nutrients, regular consumption can improve the condition of malnutrition, loss of appetite, indigestion, treatment increased can make the person's physical, mental, emotional improved.
(2) improve human immunity, immune globulin is contained in royal jelly, can significantly improve human immunity, royal jelly after a period of time, people feel energetic obviously, reduces their chances of colds and other diseases.
(3) preventive treatment of disease of heart head blood-vessel, long-term use of royal jelly on three lipid abnormalities disease, vascular sclerosis, arrhythmia, diabetes and other diseases patients have good curative effect.
(4) the treatment of anemia: royal jelly contains synthesis of hemoglobin materials such as copper, iron, have strong hematopoietic system, make the bone marrow hematopoietic function such as excitement, has been used in clinical diseases such as auxiliary treatment of anaemia.
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Monday, September 1, 2014

The value of Adzuki bean


Efficacy:
1, adzuki bean has aperient, diuretic effect, have curative effect on heart disease and kidney disease.
2 a day, eat a moderate amount of adzuki bean can purify the blood, relieve fatigue heart.
3, can vent, purge, and can reduce cholesterol.
4, adzuki bean on staphylococcus aureus, shigella and salmonella typhi's blessing has obvious inhibitory effect.
Ingredients:
According to the 1479 test results of adzuki bean germplasm resources, the protein content of 22.56% on average, range of 20.92% ~ 20.92%;  fat 0.59%; The total starch 53.17%, of which 11.50% amylose. The human body essential amino acid composition of protein is full, but sulfur amino acid content is less, is the first restrictive amino acids. Grain eggs from the quality and the proportion of carbohydrates is about 1:2 ~ 2.5, the cereal is only 1:6 ~ 7. High content of adzuki bean protein content than animal products. Like lean pork protein was 16.7%, the beef is 17.7%, egg 14.7%, milk was 3.3%. Since the ancient times, many countries with adzuki bean prevention and cure.

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Thursday, August 28, 2014

Cordyceps Sinensis medicinal value



According to the analysis of medical science, Chinese caterpillar fungus with cordyceps acid in the body. Vitamin B12, fat, protein, etc. Chinese caterpillar fungus sex, WenPing, non-toxic, is famous as a nourishing and strong medicine, commonly used meat stews, tonify deficiency and health effect. Is suitable for the treatment of lung qi deficiency, and two virtual, such as tuberculosis hemoptysis caused by lung and kidney or blood in phlegm, cough. Shortness of breath, night sweats, etc, to the kidney impotence, the waist knee acid aches, etc also has a good curative effect, and high tonic.
Cordyceps Sinensis sexual flavour gan, wen. For the functions of strengthening lung and benefiting kidney, phlegm cough. Available to the chronic cough asthma, postpartum weakness, such as impotence cold "empty". According to the research: Cordyceps Sinensis mainly containing Cordyceps Sinensis, Cordyceps acid, adenosine and polysaccharide composition such as; Cordyceps Sinensis, can inhibit the growth of the bacteria such as streptococcus, druze coli bacillus anthracis, and anticancer active substances, to human body have good adjustment function of the endocrine system and nervous system; Acid can change body circulation, has the obvious fall hematic fat and cough expectorant effect; Cordyceps polysaccharide is immunity regulator, can strengthen the body resistance to virus and parasite.

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